HOME2019-09-22T00:59:11+00:00

Water scarcity is a real problem, with manageable solutions

Call for solutions – WSS

The 2030 Water Resources Group has brought together case studies from around the world of currently available, replicable and practical solutions for water use transformation. The solutions have been collected in this online catalogue ‘Managing Water Use in Scarce Environments’ and is meant to inspire action and use by leading industry, policy makers and the 2030 WRG country programs.

The team is looking for additional case studies. Submitting your case is easy. See guidelines and details »

HOME2019-09-22T00:59:11+00:00

Conventional textile dyeing is water intensive and generates highly polluted water that must be subject to costly treatment processes prior to discharge into rivers. A new commercial scale dyeing technology for dyeing synthetic fabric, DyeOx, has been implemented in Taiwan that utilises carbon dioxide (C02) instead of water in the dyeing process. The factory that is the subject of this case study installed two machines that produce 920 000 kg of fabric per annum and resulted in a reduction in water withdrawals of 8 256 000m3 when benchmarked against conventional dyeing methods.

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A new commercial scale dyeing technology for dyeing synthetic fabric, DyeOx, has been implemented in Taiwan that utilises carbon dioxide (C02) instead of water in the dyeing process. The technology uses no water, no auxiliary chemicals and reduced energy when compared to conventional processes.

The technology was conceived at DELFT University and commercialized by the start up DyeCoo and Tong Siang Co., a dyehouse in Thailand.

Nike, the global sportswear chain, recognizing the potential of the technology in helping to achieve its sustainability objectives, entered into a strategic partnership with DyeCoo in 2012 to implement the waterless dyeing technology in one of their Taiwanese factories. This led to a further three Taiwanese factories, who supply other major sportswear brands such as Adidas, making the investment decision to implement the technology.

Intervention features:

Waterless dyeing technology, Zero waste water discharge

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
8.256.000

Corn production in Italy is constrained by unreliable and expensive water supply. In search for improved irrigation practices, three farms near Milan, installed a drip irrigation system coupled with soil moisture monitoring as part of the AquaTEK™ programme. This system allows farmers to irrigate only when needed, without stressing the plants by supplying too much or too little water.

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In a search for improved irrigation practices, three farms near Milan, installed a drip irrigation system coupled with soil moisture monitoring as part of the AquaTEK™ programme. This system allows farmers to irrigate only when needed, without stressing the plants by supplying too much or too little water. The system also allows for more precise application of fertilisers (fertigation), and thus minimises the leaching of excess nutrients into the ground.

The intervention was developed and implemented through a public private partnership between Monsanto, NETAFIM™ Italia, HydroBio Inc and the University of Milan.

Intervention features:

Drip irrigation systems, Soil moisture content monitoring, Fertigation systems, Remote monitoring and sensing

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
3.800

In Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa, major environmental concerns threaten the economies and livelihoods that depend on the natural resources of the basin as well as the ecosystems that occupy it. The Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP) is a cross border initiative funded by the World Bank designed to rehabilitate some of the major environmental concerns present in the Lake Victoria Basin. One of the pollution hot spots targeted under the program was the Kibos Sugar and Allied Industries factory (KSAI) in Kisumu, Kenya.

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The Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP) is a cross border initiative funded by the World Bank designed to rehabilitate some of the major environmental concerns present in the Lake Victoria Basin.

One of the pollution hot spots targeted under the program was the Kibos Sugar and Allied Industries factory (KSAI) in Kisumu, Kenya. Under a resource efficient and cleaner production project, the factory reduced pollutant loads of its effluent discharge by 70%. This was achieved through a series of process efficiency measures including metering & controlling, leakage reparation, water reuse and improved wastewater treatment.

Intervention features:

Improvement in water quality, Industrial leakage detection and repair, Water audits

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
120.000

The south and east of England has an average annual rainfall of around 700mm, with effective rainfall only about 400mm; much less in drought years. The low rainfall, coupled with a high density of population, forecast significant growth and the potential impact of climate change mean that an already water-stressed region will become even more so over the next two decades. In 2010, Southern Water Services Ltd (SWS), in order meet the supply-demand gap, commenced a five year project to install 500,000 intelligent meters. This was accompanied by significant customer engagement and a leakage reduction programme in order to demonstrate that the company was also working to reduce losses.

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The government and its regulators require all water companies in England and Wales to plan water resources at least 25 years ahead to ensure secure supplies. This is a twin track approach where the company must consider the cost-effectiveness of demand management measures before they propose resource developments. In 2009 compulsory water metering was identified as the preferred option for meeting the supply demand gap and in 2010 SWS commenced a five year project to install 500,000 intelligent meters. This was accompanied by significant customer engagement and an aggressive leakage reduction programme in order to demonstrate that the company was also working to reduce losses. The metering programme resulted in a 16.5% reduction in water demand.

Intervention features:

Demand Management Through Metering

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
10.220.000

Cajamarca is a mid-size town located in the northern Sierra of Peru. The town lies in a close proximity of the South America`s largest gold mine, Yanacocha. There has been tension over access to potable water for Cajamarca`s residents due to the seasonal rainfall distribution and the lack of appropriate natural water capacity of the river basins. In March 2012, Yanacocha formed a public private partnership (PPP) with the City of Cajamarca and the Cajamarca Water and Sewerage Company (SEDACAJ) and agreed to provide investment to finance new water infrastructure projects in Cajamarca.

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Yanacocha implemented a comprehensive water management strategy at the mine releasing 35 000 000m3 of treated effluent per year into the local river. Furthermore, as part of a proposed expansion and in order to address environmental concerns and ongoing disputes over water, it decided to extend its water management programme beyond the mine boundary.

In March 2012, Yanacocha formed a public private partnership (PPP) with the City of Cajamarca and the Cajamarca Water and Sewerage Company (SEDACAJ) and agreed to invest $13 000 000 between 2012 and 2020 to finance new water infrastructure projects in Cajamarca. This long-term investment project is administered by the Association of Los Andes Cajamarca – ALAC (a local NGO).

Intervention features:

PPP funding, Stakeholder engagement, Alternative water sources, Upgrades to potable water infrastructure

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
12.148.120

The textile industry is a pillar of the Bangladesh economy, accounting for about 80% of the country’s exports. However, rapid and unplanned growth of the sector imposes increasing stresses on the water environment in Dhaka, where groundwater levels decline at a rate of 2.5m/yr, and other industrial centres in Bangladesh.

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Weak enforcement of groundwater licencing and effluent treatment standards has led to high rates of water use in the textile mills and discharge of toxic effluents into the surface water bodies.

The Water PaCT Bangladesh is a partnership founded to drive the wet processing textile sector in the country towards a more sustainable performance and better water and resource efficiency. The partnership is sponsored by the Kingdom of the Netherlands and numerous international apparel buyers and implemented by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), Solidaridad and the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA). PaCT helps individual factories identify and implement Cleaner Production (CP) measures in water, energy and chemical use in the dye house, within the factories’ utilities and effluent treatment plants (ETPs), and through housekeeping. These measures are typically low-cost and easy to implement bringing quick investment return to the factories.

Intervention features:

Industrial water management, Wastewater reuse in textile industry, Water audits, Education, Technical training and capacity building, Stakeholder engagement

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
13.400.000

The project was implemented on the two main canal and branch networks in the Nile Delta in Mahmoudia and Mit Yazid. It has involved an extensive relining of irrigation canals to substantially reduce leakage, this has been combined with institutional reform to decentralize operational decision making and accountability and training and education of farmers on on-farm water management to increase productivity.

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Egypt has less than 700 m3 per capita per annum freshwater availability of which 85% is withdrawn for irrigation purposes. The Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project (IIIMP) in the Nile Delta has been implemented to improve water distribution, quantity, quality, equity and timeliness and hence to increase agricultural production and alleviate poverty.

Intervention features:

Institutional reform, Stakeholder Engagement, Education, Technical training and capacity building, Irrigation metering, Infrastructure improvement for leakage reduction

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
500.000.000

The textile industry forms a critical part of the Indian economy contributing 4% of total GDP and employing over 45 000 000 people. The processing of textiles is, however, a significant user of freshwater and poses significant pollution challenges in the disposal of its wastewater.

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The Arvind textile mill located near Kalol, Ahmedabad District, India uses over 6.5 million m3 of process water per year. Limitations on groundwater extraction coupled with the lack of a nearby location for effluent discharge led to the implementation of a complete water reuse system.

The total water available from the local aquifers is approximately 1.5 million m3/yr with the rest of the process water being provided through wastewater re-use. The unit cost of re-using process waste water was between $4-6 /m3 which is a very high unit cost particularly when compared to ground water abstraction rates.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse in textile industry

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
5.035.606

The $700 million public-private funded irrigation modernization project was implemented in 30 states in Mexico to increase the competitiveness and efficiency of the irrigated agriculture and achieve higher farm productivity and revenues. The project implemented a suite of improvements to the irrigation infrastructure in order to improve the productivity per unit of water.

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In addition, operational responsibilities were decentralized and the irrigation infrastructure was transferred to local water user associations (WUA); a key requirement for the financing provided by IBRD (World Bank).

The locally prioritized improvement plans by the WUAs delivered the rehabilitation of the irrigation system supplying water to 427 100 hectares of farmland. The reduction in leakage in the system coupled with improved on-farm water management made 1 183 million m3 of water available for use and directly benefitted 1.1 million irrigation farmers.

Intervention features:

Education, Training and capacity building, Irrigation metering

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
1.183 M

SABMiller India partnered with local stakeholders in Alwar to implement a basin-wide groundwater management initiative which ensures the security and sustainability of the local deep aquifer. The deep aquifer is the only reliable source of water supply for the agricultural, industrial and municipal sectors in the semi-arid region. The seasonal monsoon rainfall is the only other source of water supply.

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So a plan was launched to increase groundwater recharge through the construction of six recharge structures. Scheduled training programs for local farmers on water efficiency practices were also implemented to reduce withdrawal for agricultural purposes.

This is benefiting more than 4 000 farms on a regular basis. In addition, water efficient agricultural practices were showcased by 136 knowledge farms covering 105 ha in 68 villages. The project was financed by SABMiller India. The initiative has improved the management of the local deep aquifer and the security of supply for the Roches Brewery in Neemrana.

Intervention features:

Alternative water sources, Education, technical training and capacity building, Stakeholder engagement

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
2,366,400 m3/yr

In the last two decades Rustenburg in South Africa has experienced a rapid population growth due to the expansion of mining operations in the region. This significantly increased both municipal and industrial water demands and overwhelmed the capacity of the existing wastewater treatment works.

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The water services provider, Rustenburg Municipality, was rated as the 3rd most distressed in South Africa and thus unable to raise the finance required to address the problems. To address this challenge, a joint initiative was undertaken between the mines and the municipality to establish a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) with a 22-year concession to finance, upgrade and operate water infrastructure. The key to the success of the SPV was the signing of a long term offtake agreement with the mines for the provision of non-potable treated wastewater. This forms 75% of the SPV’s revenue. The mines previously relied on freshwater that was imported from neighboring catchments. The move to the use of non-potable has enabled the re-allocation of the imported freshwater to the municipality thus increasing the overall freshwater resource that is available in the catchment. Partial improvements in downstream water quality have also been made through better wastewater treatment.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse, Institutional reform

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
13,505,000

Shandong is one of the largest textile producing provinces in China, and one of four targeted under the IFC China Water Program. Yuyue Home Textile Co. is located in Binzhou City. It specialises in weaving, printing, embroidery sewing and supplying home textile products.

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As part of China’s 5 year plan launched in 2011, all of China’s textile manufacturers must cut energy and water use by 16% and 30% respectively by 2015 or face a penalty fine or closure. Yuyue is a supplier of the global furniture chain IKEA. Upon encouragement from IKEA, the factory joined the IFC China Water Program in 2012. The IFC and IKEA contributed to the cost of conducting water and energy efficiency audits. Interventions, funded by Yuyue, were made to upgrade machinery and control systems. Total water withdrawal was reduced by 325 000 m3 per year and energy consumption was reduced by 8 874 MWh per year.

Intervention features:

Water audits, Education, technical training and capacity building, Enforcement of quotas, Textile processing technologies

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
325,000

Effluent re-use for irrigation is vital in water conservation in Israel, helping to facilitate reduced freshwater withdrawal nation-wide. Now, over 40% of Israel’s agricultural water needs are currently supplied by effluent water.

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The Shafdan Wastewater Treatment Facility is Israel’s largest wastewater treatment and reuse facility. The facility is located south of Tel Aviv, close to the coast and supplies approximately 140 000 000 m3 per year of reclaimed water to the Negev Desert in the south of Israel for agricultural use on 50 000 acres of irrigated lands.

Intervention features:

Groundwater recharge, Wastewater reuse for agriculture, Non-potable water distribution system, Reduced water rates for reclaimed water

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
140,000,000

Udaipur is a popular tourist destination located in the economically active yet severely water scarce Indian state of Rajasthan. The city had failing wastewater infrastructure and was struggling to maintain the cleanliness of its lakes, which had been historically absorbing raw residential sewage. At the same time, the major corporate zinc mining company Hindustan Zinc (a subsidiary of Vedanta Group Ltd) was increasing production and exploring options for additional water resources, which would reduce their dependence on fresh water withdrawal.

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A forward-thinking public-private partnership (PPP) deal between the Hindustan Zinc and the local government (Udaipur Municipal Corporation and Rajasthan State-Owned Urban Improvement Trust) was formed in May 2012 to develop the city`s first Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) which addressed both stakeholders objectives.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse for agriculture, Wastewater reuse as cooling water, Wastewater recycling for industrial use, PPP funding

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
7,300,000

Water is one of Anglo American’s mining group largest consumables with a 2014 annual use of approximately 200 million m3. This, along with the Group’s geographical exposure of >70% operations in water stress basins, makes water a recognized strategic risk. Water efficiency was introduced as a core element of the Groups water strategy and program in 2011. Every Anglo American operation within the business works towards a water reduction target that was determined using an innovative approach named the “Water Efficiency Target Tool” (WETT).

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WETT, forecasts the projected business-as-usual (BAU) water demand of individual operations and establish a register of cost effective water efficiency interventions. It then links the two to identify future performance targets. By the end of 2014, the WETT program had achieved the corporate water reduction target originally set for 2020 (a 13.9% reduction on projected BAU use).

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse in mines, Condensate recovery and reuse, Rainwater harvesting, Corporate water efficiency programme

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
36,000,000

The seafood and fish processing industry consumes high volumes of water in order to maintain appropriate hygiene levels and prevent the products from spoilage. In addition up to 70% of the raw fish is discarded as waste, predominantly through the wastewater system of the processing facilities, producing heavy organic effluent.

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The Pakyurek seafood processing plant located in Adana primarily produces canned marinated anchovy. The groundwater aquifer, from which the plant is abstracting fresh water for its operations, has been recognised as extremely vulnerable to climate change. The company was selected to participate in the UN Joint Programme “MDG-F 1680 Enhancing the Capacity of Turkey to Adopt Climate Change”, as it operates in a priority industrial sector in the Seyhan River Basin. The programme provided Pakyurek with partial funding and technical advice in order to improve its water footprint. The evaluation of the anchovy processing revealed potential for water reuse and waste minimisation.

Water treatment units were installed in the thawing (defrosting with water) and gutting stages to reduce water withdrawals by up to 70%. An oil separator was fitted within the new wastewater system and valuable fish oils were recovered as a by product. The project was delivered with the support of the Technology Development Foundation of Turkey (TTGV) in collaboration with the Middle East Technical University(METU) and was partially financed by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO).

Intervention features:

Wastewater recycling in the food industry, Education, technical training and capacity building, Industrial water management

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
29,000

Located on the lake Taihu (or Tai) in the Zhejiang Province west of Shanghai, Huaneng Power International`s Changxing Power Plant is a new 1.3GW high efficiency ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plant. Water pollution and water scarcity are the two main environmental concerns of the region.

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With annual precipitation of 1 000–1 500mm, Lake Taihu gets fair amount of rain but not enough to meet the growing demands of industries located on the lake (chemical, metal, printing, dying industries) and the rapidly growing population. Since the last major algae bloom in April 2007, licence to operate has only been given to industrial plants that control their effluent discharges and air emissions tightly and reduce their water intake from the lake. This environment, together with a national policy on sustainable water resource management under the China 12th five-year plan of 2011-2015 has led to the implementation of the most rigorous zero liquid discharge treatment.

Operational since May 2015, the wastewater treatment process produces annually 231 000 m3 of treated effluent collected from the Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) process and cooling tower blow-down and reused in the boiler feedwater purification system. The softening pretreatment sludge is disposed of in a landfill and salts from the process are dried to >95.5% solids and sold to the local chemical industry, cutting the wastewater discharge to zero.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse in power generation, Reuse of cooling blowdown water, Zero liquid discharge, National and regional policies

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
231,000

The Olifants River Water Resources Development Project (ORWRDP) is to increase the availability of freshwater in the Olifants catchment and to deliver bulk water for social and economic development in the Strategic Development corridor in Limpopo Province. This is one of the South African governments strategic integrated projects (SIPs), which aims to speed up development and growth across South Africa through job creation and basic service delivery.

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Activities have included raising of the Flag Boshielo Dam and the construction of the De Hoop dam together with associated delivery infrastructure. Half of the new infrastructure capacity is reserved for 800 000 domestic users, with the rest targeted towards economic growth. The initial phase of the intervention was completely funded by the mining sector while later phases are publically funded. The project increased the storage, catchment yield and conveyance capacity in the Olifants River catchment to reduce barriers to economic growth.

Intervention features:

Capture of surface water, Public private nance model

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
118,000,000

The Ica Home Farm is Monsanto`s largest vegetable seed manufacturing site in Peru. It produces more than half of firm`s global production of melon seeds, but also growing tomato, watermelon, cucumber and cauliflower seeds. The farm covers an area of 200ha and employs over 1 500 people.

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Located on the Pacific coast in the Ica Valley desert, it has ideal, sunny weather conditions for growing crops all-year-round, but is impacted by water scarcity. With an annual rainfall of only 3mm per year, the main water source for the farm has been the underground aquifer. However, with agriculture farms booming and more farmers drilling for water, the aquifer levels have dropped from 35m to 50m between 2000 and 2012, and salinity levels have increased. In 2011 the Government issued a regulation prohibiting any new wells to be drilled in the area, forcing local farmers to relocate or adapt to new conditions.

The Ica Home Farm commenced a program to adapt to the new circumstances. In 2011 it installed a Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant that treats 200 000m3/yr of saline groundwater. Between 2012 – 2014, the farm implemented a series of measures to reduce its water withdrawals including the introduction of a new conduction and pruning system for melon seeds, a new grafting technique for watermelons, the installation of moisture sensors and transitioning from soil to soilless cultivation.

Intervention features:

Irrigation management, Irrigation systems, Evapotranspiration reduction, Improvement in water quality, Education, technical training and capacity building

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
298,265

SamSamWater Foundation in collaboration with NGO Chamavita and the community in Kwemakame in Tanzania successfully implemented a small scale aquifer recharge scheme capturing the rainwater runoff from the rocky steep slopes of the local Usambara mountain range. The area suffers from reduced rate of infiltration due to deforestation, resulting in higher runoff from exposed bedrock and increase in water abstraction due to rapid population growth.

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SamSamWater Foundation in collaboration with NGO Chamavita and the community in Kwemakame in Tanzania successfully implemented a small scale aquifer recharge scheme capturing the rainwater runoff from the rocky steep slopes of the local Usambara mountain range. The area suffers from reduced rate of infiltration due to deforestation, resulting in higher runoff from exposed bedrock and increase in water abstraction due to rapid population growth.

Intervention features:

Institutional reform and capacity building, Stakeholder engagement, Alternative water sources

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
1,200

The industrial sector accounts for 30% of Jordan’s GDP and is a major driver of growth. The country is classified by the World Resources Institute as one of the 30 most water stressed countries in the world with a water supply deficit projected to reach 365 million cubic meters by 2030.

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The ongoing water scarcity crisis poses a major threat to the economic stability of the industrial sector and Jordan as a whole.  The USAID Water Reuse and Environmental Conservation Programme ran from 2010-2015. Two of its four major tasks focused on institutional capacity building and pollution prevention for industry.

The project team worked with the Ministry of Environment (MoEnv) to build their regulatory capacity and strengthen national capacity to analyse industrial water use and effluent discharges. The programme targeted 30 factories in which detailed water and energy efficiency audits were conducted. This drove a programme of interventions that were self financed by the 30 target facilties and reduced water withdrawals by 739 000 m3 per annum.

Intervention features:

Institutional reform, Education, technical training and capacity building, Stakeholder engagement, Water audits, Energy audits

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
739,000

Groundwater has been used for irrigation in the Upper Guadiana Basin for centuries. The region is semiarid, with an annual rainfall of 415mm, and is characterized by interconnecting aquifers and groundwater dependent ecosystems like the Tablas da Daimiel National Park wetland.

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In 1988, under pressure from environmental and conservation groups, the government initiated a series of legislative changes in an attempt to restore the wetlands and better regulate aquifer withdrawal. Implementation has proved to be challenging, with local farmers in particular concerned that restrictions on abstraction would impact on their livelihood. The 2008 Upper Guardiana Basin Plan identified a range of ambitious further measures to manage water resources.

Intervention features:

Irrigation metering, Subsidies to reduce groundwater abstractions, Enforcement of quotas, Transformation of water rights, Education, technical training and capacity building

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
400,000,000

Oyu Tolgoi (OT) is one of the world’s largest copper-gold deposits located in the Gobi Desert, Mongolia. Rio Tinto, the multi-national metals and mining corporation, have a 66% ownership stake in, whilst the Mongolian Government owns 34%. Once fully operational, the mine could increase Mongolia’s GDP by 35% by 2020.

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The Southern Gobi Region has little to no surface water. In order to maximise productivity in this water stressed environment, the mine have installed extensive water reuse systems, highly efficient tailings, zero/low water use equipment and floating lagoon covers to reduce evaporative losses.

The negative perception of the mining industry in the region is being tackled through the formation of the South Gobi Water and Mining Industry Roundtable. The mine have been able to share their good water management practices, as well as effective community engagement strategies, with other mines in the region in order to promote good practice across the industry.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse in mines, Stakeholder engagement, Wastewater recycling for industrial use

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
28,038,000

The coastal city of Tarragona, with an annual precipitation of just 560 mm, has been supplied with water by a man-made water transfer system from the Ebro River since 1989. However, the city has been struggling to keep up with growing water demands from residents and the growing petrochemical industry.

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In 2011, the Catalan Water Agency decided to construct the Camp de Tarragona Water Reclamation Plant. This plant treats municipal secondary effluent collected from two urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTP Tarragona and WWTP Vila Seca-Salou) and generates 6.8 million m3 of reclaimed effluent per year for use in water for cooling towers and boilers at the local petrochemical complex.

This approach was supported by the Chemical Business Association of Tarragona (AEQT) and Tarragona Industrial Water Company (AITASA) that represented the trade and technological needs of the industrial end-users operating at the Complex, such as Dow Chemical and Repsol. The project was financed by the EU Cohesion Funds (85%) and the Catalonian Government and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (15%).

Intervention features:

Wastewater recycling for industrial use, Wastewater reuse as cooling water, Provision of grants

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
6,800,000

Lima gets an average of just over 25mm of rainfall per year. However, from June to November much of the city is covered in thick sea mist that does not precipitate. The Green Desert project aimed to harness the potential of the mist to bring additional source of water for the communities living in the outskirts of Lima.

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The project was delivered in the Bellavista community in Villa del Triunfo settlement after consideration of the geographical suitability of the location and the community eagerness to participate.

Intervention features:

Fog collection, Irrigation systems, Stakeholder engagement

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
300

The chemical industry is extremely important for the Turkish economy, accounting for approximately 10% of the total exports. Access to the neighbouring European Union (EU) market requires compliance with the tight EU environmental regulations.

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The industry is also heavily reliant on the availability of energy, water and resources and vulnerable to climate change. A pilot project was launched in the Advansa SASA chemical plant in Adana to assess the benefits of sustainable production practices within the industry including measures to reduce cooling water use

Intervention features:

Water audit, Installation of air cooled heat pumps

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
151,500

Agriculture is the biggest consumer of fresh water in South Africa with irrigation accounting for approximately 43% of the available water resources in the Western Cape Province. Within this region, on average citrus fruits and grapes can demand as much as 7 000-11 000 m3/ha/yr of water for irrigation.

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FruitLook (www.fruitlook.co.za) is an open web portal that runs during the grape and deciduous fruit season of October to April in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

The service is governmentally funded by the Western Cape Department of Agriculture to encourage efficient water use in agriculture and minimise losses due to surplus use. Via the website farmers have access to spatial data based on satellite information to analyse crop growth and water status over time and space.

Intervention features:

Irrigation scheduling, Soil moisture content monitoring, Remote monitoring and sensing, Management of evaporation losses, Stakeholder engagement, Education, technical training and capacity building

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
10,150,000

Water scarcity and low soil fertility negatively impact the productivity of smallholder farmers. Increasing population and the effects of climate change threaten productivity further still. As part of their Corporate Social Responsibility strategy, COOPERNIC (a sourcing alliance of major European retailers) partnered with the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) to improve food security of smallholder farmers in India, Guatemala and Madagascar.

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Scaling-up of Micro Irrigation Systems (SCAMPIS) implemented between 2009-2012, and aimed to increase farm productivity to create surpluses for local consumption and markets. Through a focus on financial support mechanisms and supply-chain capacity building, the project engaged with 8 800 households in the adoption of Micro-Irrigation technology across five districts in Madagascar. Uptake of the Micro Irrigation Systems (MIS) led to a 41% increase in agricultural productivity and a 69% reduction in water abstraction.

Intervention features:

Drip irrigation systems, Stakeholder engagement, Subsidies for the purchase of water saving appliances, Education, technical training and capacity building

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
641,500

Flemington Race Course is home to the Victoria Racing Club (VRC) and sits on the banks of the tidal Maribyrnong River in Melbourne, Australia. An annual water use of approximately 400 000 m3 puts VRC in Victoria’s top 100 water users. Between 2007 and 2009, Victoria and Southeast Australia suffered a prolonged drought.

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Concurrently, the price of water in Melbourne rose from $0.91 per m3 in 2007 to $2.57 per m3 in 2015. The VRC responded to these events by seeking cost effective opportunities to reduce the Racecourse’s dependence on fresh water. VRC invested in a new borehole based desalination technology, extracting water from a brackish aquifer. This supplies VRC with 113 000 m3 of ‘new water’ per year for irrigation and non-potable use. This meets nearly 30% of the annual fresh water demand from the site. Energy costs are minimised through direct return of the concentrated salts into the bottom of the aquifer.

Intervention features:

Alternative water sources

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
113,000

The Ica region of Peru has experienced a boom in asparagus production since 1990’s and is now responsible for 95% of Peru’s fresh asparagus exports. The region is facing major issues around increasing water scarcity. Groundwater abstraction significantly outstrips recharge rates causing the water table to fall by 8-10 metres annually in some parts. Valle y Pampa is a 217 hectare entrepreneurial agricultural venture producing and exporting pomegranate, asparagus and blueberry crops to international markets across twenty countries.

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The farm has demonstrated a new High Frequency Intermittent Drip Irrigation System (HFDI) technology, which combines an automatic fertigation system with drip irrigation methodology that doses in short 4-9 minute shifts. The automated system monitors chemical and physical conditions in the upper levels of the root zone in real time and fertigates accordingly.  When benchmarked against industry standards based on the utilisation of conventional drip irrigation, the system provides an increase in yield of 65% and 126% for asparagus and pomegranate respectively per m3 of water applied.

Intervention features:

Irrigation scheduling, Soil moisture content monitoring, Remote monitoring and sensing, Fertigation systems, Drip irrigation systems

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
1,172,500

The Lagos de Moreno plant, located in the water scarce area of central Mexico`s Jalisco State, is the first of Nestlé’s milk powder factories that has been running entirely on water extracted from milk (so called “Proyecto Cero Agua”; Zero Water Project). Fresh cow milk contains around 88% water, some of which can be captured and reused back in the process without any negative impact on the product.

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The project achieved a reduction in water abstraction from the initial 2 000 m3 per day to 0 m3 per day by treating the condensate to a potable level and re-using it in the manufacturing process. Residual wastewater is treated and utilised for cooling and cleaning. The project was driven by the need to protect the future license to operate and by anticipating the future increases in water costs. The project was justified on the long-term rather than short term business case and contributes to meeting Nestlé`s commitment for reducing its overall direct water withdrawals by 40% by 2015.

Intervention features:

Condensate recovery and reuse, Industrial water metering, Wastewater recycling in the food industry

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
730,000

Sociedade Central de Cervejas e Bebidas Brewery (SCC) (part of the Heineken Group), located 13km from Lisbon, uses 950 000 m3 of water for its brewing process per year producing 290 000 m3 of beer. Lisbon is one of several regions within Iberia that is suffering from serious water scarcity.

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Since 2008 the plant has been under pressure to reduce its water use. Firstly to reduce the overall cost of water that was as high as $3.05 per m3, and secondly to help SCC lower its water use of water per beer ratio under 3.5 hectolitre per hectolitre (Hl/Hl) and meet the goals of the Heineken`s Brewing a Better World plan. The SCC originally installed Reverse Osmosis (RO) tertiary treatment in 2008 that was operational until 2012. However, the system was experiencing frequent shutdowns and was not performing satisfactorily. An external partner, GE Water and Power, was then brought in to optimise the process. Between 2012 and 2014, the project succeeded in increasing the production performance of the system by 58% reducing the amount of shutdowns by fivefold. The RO treatment is now producing 82 000m3 per year and reduces the water withdrawal from local municipality that allows for this water to be used by higher priority customers elsewhere.

Intervention features:

Wastewater reuse in the food industry, Wastewater reuse as cooling water, Education, technical training and capacity building, Optimisation programme

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
82,000

The Water Utilities Department of City of Roseville engaged WaterSmart to implement the Water Insights online platform to enhance the engagement with its residential customers. The aim was to provide them with personalised information about their water use, to educate them on the value of water and to improve water use efficiency through a social norms based program.

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The Water Insights initiative was delivered as part of a wider water efficiency program, which included home water audits, water efficient retrofits, and rebates for low flush toilets and water efficient landscapes. The programs were initiated in order to achieve the 20% reduction in water use by 2020, as mandated by the California Water Conservation Act 2009.

With the aid of various  tools, the City’s Water Conservation Team has successfully informed, engaged, and educated the 18 000 participating households about their water use. This resulted in an additional 5.9% per year reduction in water use in comparison to the non-participating households.

Intervention features:

Domestic demand reduction, Tariffs and incentives, Stakeholder engagement

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
880,000

The project, led by Jain Irrigation Systems Limited (JISL) and the IFC, targeted smallholder onion producers from the region assisting them to switch from traditional flood irrigation to micro-irrigation systems. This project resulted in reduced water withdrawals, improved productivity and increased income for the smallholder farmers.

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The project is part of The Gold Standard’s Water Benefit Standard certification system, which certifies water performance of projects. These can be bought by Corporations, NGOs and governmental organisations and serve as means of ongoing funding for the project.

Intervention features:

Drip irrigation systems, Water benefit certification system, Drip irrigation systems, Water benefit certification system, Education, Technical and capacity building

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
181,000 m3/yr

In 2014 Brazil’s largest city, Sao Paulo, experienced the worst drought on record. The city was serviced by six separate dam systems. During the 2014 drought, available flows were half those experienced in the 1953 drought, previously the worst on record. In response, the city’s water company, Sabesp, undertook major works on the supply systems including interconnecting the 6 major dam systems and reducing pressure throughout the distribution network.

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The company also launched an incentive discount scheme to reduce domestic water use. Overall, these actions reduced use in the Metropolitan area by 38%, amounting to 545 573 000 m3. The majority of investment required was provided by Sabesp with some loan financing provided by Federal Government and the World Bank.

Intervention features:

Municipal leakage detection and repair, Tariffs and incentives, Pressure management in municipalities, Water metering in municipalities

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
600,000,000 m3/yr

The Zhaoqing Jiarong Knitwear Dyeing and Finishing Company is located in the Guangdong Province, within the city of Zhaoqing. Its annual dyeing and finishing capacity is 15 000 tons of knitted fabric. The IFC China Water Program was set up to facilitate financial investment in water efficiency projects within the four major textile producing provinces of China, one of which is Guangdong.

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As part of China’s 5 year plan launched in 2011, all of China’s textile manufacturers must cut energy and water use by 16% and 30% respectively by 2015 or face a penalty fine or closure. Jiarong factory upgraded their conventional jet dyeing process to air-flow dyeing machines that reduce the water requirement of the dyeing process. The intervention achieved a 53% reduction in withdrawal per tonne of material produced. Interventions were self-financed by the Jiarong factory with support from IFC for the water and energy efficiency auditing process.

Intervention features:

Water audits, Education, technical training and capacity building, Enforcement of quotas, Textile processing technologies

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
362,000

Towards the end of 2010, the Western Cape region experienced its worst drought in more than 130 years. In the Mossel Bay area, the level of the Wolvedans Dam dropped significantly threatening the operation of the Nestlé factory, which processes condensed and powdered milk.

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The project involved the implementation of a water use reduction strategy, which included actions such as an active monitoring of water use, engineering interventions to enable condensate reuse, retrofitting low flow plumbing fixtures, and active employee participation.

At a cost of US$145,000, fully financed by Nestle, the strategy was successful in reducing the plant’s water consumption by approximately 50% from 284,000m3/year to 163,000m3/year. Per ton of product, water withdrawal also became much more efficient, dropping from 14.8m3 to 7.5m3. Geographically, the reduced withdrawal resulted in greater water availability for the Mossel Bay area.

Intervention features:

Condensate recovery and reuse, Education, technical training and capacity building, Employee Participation, Industrial water metering, Low flow showerheads, Pressure management in factories, Stakeholder Engagement

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
120,000 m3/yr

Tiruppur is a mid-sized industrial town located in the upper hydrological basin of the Cauvery River. The basin suffers from water scarcity due to erratic seasonal rainfall, limited reservoir capacity and a high demand on the already limited resource. The city is also the hub of India’s textile industry accounting for 80% of national knitwear production and generating over $1 billion of exports per year. The river and groundwater system the industry uses suffers from severe water quality issues as a result of effluent discharges. This in turn has affected the agricultural potential of downstream lands.

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To address the matter, the Indian High Court mandated zero liquid discharge from the textile industry. As a result of the decision, nine existing effluent treatment plants were upgraded with a combined reverse osmosis and thermal evaporation system, enabling 96% of the effluent to be treated and returned as freshwater. 

At a cost of US$84,000,000, financed by government grants, soft loans and industry, the project accomplished a reduction in demand on the municipal water supply by 876,000m3/year. Dye salts are now recaptured from the effluent stream for industry use resulting in higher quality water for areas downstream. Though expensive, the investment is expected to have a payback period of 15 years.

Intervention features:

Condensate recovery and reuse, Improvement in water quality, Wastewater reuse in textile industry

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
876,000 m3/yr

The Essar steel and power plants are located in Gujarat, India. The power plant is a multi-fuel combined-cycle plant using 3,900,000m3 of water per year and generating 515MW of power. The Essar steel facility, the fourth largest in the world, is located adjacent to the power plant and can produce ten million tons of steel per year. Both plants abstract water from the river Tapti and wastewater effluent is discharged into the sea.

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In order to reduce the combined water footprint of the sites, the power plant cooling system has been improved to reduce freshwater demand. Blowdown water that was previously discharged to the ocean is now transferred to the steel plant. In addition, wastewater from the steel facility is being treated for reuse in the power plant and for localized irrigation of landscaping.

At a project cost of US$380,000, funded by Essar Gujarat, results point to an 86 percent reduction of power plant wasterwater that would have otherwise been discharged into the ocean. The steel plant, in turn, now uses 45 percent of recycled wastewater. The total volumetric impact of the project stands at 1,479,000m3/year.

Intervention features:

Condenser process retrofit, Reuse of cooling blowdown water, Wastewater reuse in power generation , Wastewater reuse in steel production

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
1,479,000 m3/yr

Durban, located on the eastern coast of South Africa, is one of the country’s fastest-growing cities and its second-largest industrial center. It is an area with high water stress and is expected to become dependent on desalination in future years. The demand for water by the industrial sector presents an additional challenge to the city authorities in meeting the water supply needs of the city and effective management of water resources.

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Unilever, a global consumer goods firm, opened their $72m factory in Durban in 2012. It’s their second largest dry food goods factory. To reduce the use of municipal water supply, the factory makes use of alternate sources of water, such as rainwater harvesting from a 22,000m3 roof and condensate recovery. In addition, it recycles most of the process water and greywater produced in the factory.

At a capital cost of US$2,900,000, the factory has become one of the most water efficient dry food producing factories. Under normal circumstances, the need to use water from the municipal supply has been virtually eliminated, making available up to 12,000m3 of water for the local community each year.

Intervention features:

Condensate recovery and reuse, Greywater recycling, Rainwater harvesting , Wastewater recycling in the food industry

Water scarcity
impact
Reduced withdrawal
Reduced consumption
Improved water quality
Increased productivity
Improved net basin impact
volumetric impact
12,000 m3/yr